Production na Margarine

Margarine: Shine yaduwa da ake amfani dashi don yadawa, yin burodi, da dafa abinci. An ƙirƙira shi asali don maye gurbin man shanu a 1869 a Faransa ta Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès. Ana yin sinadarin margarine ne musamman na mai da ƙanshi ko kuma mai ƙaran tsirrai da ruwa.

Yayinda ake yin man shanu daga mai daga madara, ana yin margarine daga man tsirrai kuma yana iya ƙunsar madara. A wasu yankuna ana kiransa da sunan "oleo", takaice don oleomargarine.

Margarine, kamar man shanu, ya ƙunshi emulsion na ruwa, tare da ƙananan ƙanana na ruwa da aka tarwatse iri ɗaya a cikin kowane lokaci mai mai wanda yake a cikin tsayayyen siffar lu'ulu'u. Margarine yana da mafi ƙarancin abun mai na 80%, daidai yake da man shanu, amma sabanin mai da ake rage mai na margarine kuma ana iya yiwa lakabi da margarine. Ana iya amfani da margarine duka don yaɗawa da kuma yin burodi da dafa abinci. Hakanan ana amfani dashi azaman sashi a cikin wasu kayan abinci, kamar su kek da kukis, don yawan ayyukansa.

Margarine Production

Hanyar asali ta yin margarine a yau ta ƙunshi emulsifying mai hade da kayan ƙanshin mai na hydrogenated tare da madara mai ƙyama, sanyaya cakuɗin don ƙarfafa shi da kuma aiki da shi don inganta yanayin. Kayan lambu da kitsen dabbobi irin su mahadi ne tare da wuraren narkar da su daban-daban. Wadancan kitsen da suke da ruwa a zazzabin ɗaki an san su da mai. Abubuwan narkewa suna da alaƙa da kasancewar haɗin carbon-carbon sau biyu a cikin abubuwan da ke cikin ƙwayoyin mai. Mafi yawan lambobi biyu suna ba da ƙananan narkewar maki.
M hydrogenation na man shuke-shuke hankula zuwa hankula bangaren sinadarin margarine. Yawancin C = C an cire alaƙa biyu a cikin wannan aikin, wanda ke ɗaukaka wurin narkar da samfurin.

Yawancin lokaci, ana amfani da mai na halitta ta hanyar wucewar hydrogen ta cikin mai a gaban mai sanya kuzari, a ƙarƙashin yanayin sarrafawa. Additionarin hydrogen ɗin zuwa haɗin da ba a ƙayyade ba (alkenes double C = C bonds) yana haifar da ƙididdigar CC mai cikakken ƙarfi, yana haɓaka haɓakar narkewar man kuma ta haka yana “taurara” shi. Wannan ya faru ne saboda karuwar karfin van der Waals tsakanin kwayoyi masu gamsarwa idan aka kwatanta da kwayoyin da ba a kammala su ba. Koyaya, tunda akwai fa'idodi na kiwon lafiya a iyakance adadin kitsen mai a cikin abincin ɗan adam, ana sarrafa aikin ta yadda isa da gami ne kawai za a ba shi damar ba shi yanayin da ake buƙata.

Margarines da aka yi ta wannan hanyar ana cewa suna ɗauke da kitse mai ƙoshin hydrogen. Ana amfani da wannan hanyar yau don wasu margarines kodayake an haɓaka aikin kuma wani lokacin ana amfani da wasu ƙarfe ƙarfe kamar palladium. Idan hydrogenation bai cika ba (ɓangaren hardening), ƙarancin yanayin zafi da ake amfani da shi a cikin aikin hydrogenation yana jujjuya wasu nau'ikan haɗin carbon-carbon sau biyu cikin sigar "trans". Idan waɗannan nau'ikan ba su da isasshen ruwa yayin aikin, za su ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin margarine ta ƙarshe a cikin ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta, wanda aka nuna amfani da shi a matsayin haɗarin haɗarin cutar cututtukan zuciya. Saboda wannan, ana amfani da ƙananan ƙwayoyi masu ƙarancin ƙarfi a cikin masana'antar margarine. Wasu man na wurare masu zafi, kamar su dabino da kuma man kwakwa, a dabi'ance basu da ƙarfi kuma basa buƙatar hydrogenation.

Ana iya yin margarine ta zamani daga kowane irin nau'ikan mai na dabbobi ko na kayan lambu, wanda aka gauraya da madara mai ɗanɗano, gishiri, da kuma emulsifiers. Bazuwar margarine da kayan lambu da aka samo a kasuwa na iya kaiwa daga 10 zuwa 90% mai. Dogaro da kitsensa na ƙarshe da kuma dalilinsa (yadawa, girki ko yin burodi), matakin ruwa da man kayan lambu da aka yi amfani da su zai ɗan bambanta. An matsa man daga iri kuma an tace shi. Sannan an hade shi da daskararren mai. Idan ba a saka kitso mai mai a cikin kayan mai na kayan lambu ba, na biyun yana shan cikakken aikin hydrogenation don ƙarfafa su.

Haɗuwa da sakamakon da aka samu yana haɗuwa da ruwa, citric acid, carotenoids, bitamin da madara foda. Emulsifiers kamar lecithin suna taimakawa watsa lokacin ruwa daidai a ko'ina cikin mai, kuma ana yawaita gishiri da abubuwan kiyayewa. Wannan emulsion din mai da ruwa sai yayi mai zafi, ya hade, kuma ya huce. Anyi margarines mai taushi mafi ƙarancin hydrogenated, ƙarin ruwa, mai fiye da toshe margarine.

Nau'in margarine iri uku ne:
Kitsen kayan lambu mai taushi, mai dauke da kitse mai hade da polyunsaturated, wanda aka yi shi daga safflower, sunflower, waken soya, auduga, fyade, ko man zaitun.
Margarine a cikin kwalba don dafa ko saman jita-jita
Da wuya, margarine gabaɗaya mara launi don dafa ko yin burodi.
Hadawa tare da man shanu.
Yawancin shahararrun shimfidar tebur da aka siyar a yau sune margarine da man shanu ko wasu kayayyakin madara. Haɗuwa, wanda ake amfani dashi don inganta dandarin margarine, ya kasance ba bisa doka ba a ƙasashe irin su Amurka da Ostiraliya. A ƙarƙashin umarnin Tarayyar Turai, ba za a iya kiran samfurin margarine “man shanu” ba, koda kuwa mafi yawansu sun ƙunshi man shanu na ɗabi’a. A wasu ƙasashen Turai ana shimfida shimfidar tebur mai yalwa kuma ana tallata kayayyakin margarine azaman “cakuda man shanu”.
Haɗin Butter a yanzu yana da babban rabo daga kasuwar yaduwar tebur. Alamar "Ba zan iya gaskanta Ba Butter!" ya haifar da nau'ikan yaduwa iri ɗaya masu suna iri iri waɗanda yanzu ana iya samun su a kan manyan kantunan a duk faɗin duniya, tare da sunaye kamar “Da Kyakkyawan Butterful”, “Butterlicious”, “Butterly Butterly”, da “Butter Butter Believe It”. Wadannan cakudawar man shanu suna gujewa hani akan lakabi, tare da dabarun talla wanda ke nuna kwatankwacin karfi da hakikanin man shanu. Irin waɗannan sunaye na kasuwa suna gabatar da samfurin ga masu amfani daban da alamun samfurin da ake buƙata waɗanda ke kira margarine “wani ɓangaren man kayan lambu na hydrogen”.

Gina Jiki
Tattaunawa game da ƙimar abinci mai gina jiki na margarines da yaɗuwa sun ta'allaka ne da fannoni biyu - jimlar yawan mai, da nau'ikan mai (mai mai mai, mai mai mai mai yawa). Yawancin lokaci, ana yin kwatancen tsakanin margarine da man shanu a cikin wannan mahallin kuma.

Adadin mai.
Matsayi na man shanu da na margarine na gargajiya (80% mai kitse) suna kama da batun abun cikin kuzarin su, amma margarin mai ƙarancin mai da yaduwa ana samun su sosai.

Kitsen mai.
Ba a haɗu da cikakken ƙwayoyin mai mai ƙima ga matakan haɓakar ƙwayar cholesterol na jini ba. Sauya kitse mai dauke da mai wanda bai dace ba da mai wanda bai dace ba da polyunsaturated yana da tasiri sosai wajen hana cututtukan zuciya na mata fiye da rage yawan mai. Duba rikicewar kitse da cututtukan zuciya da jijiyoyin jini.
Fats na kayan lambu na iya ƙunsar komai tsakanin 7% da 86% mai ƙanshi mai kitse. Man mai na ruwa (man canola, man sunflower) ya kasance yana kan ƙarshen ƙarshen, yayin da mai na wurare masu zafi (man kwakwa, man kernel na dabino) da mai ƙeƙasasshe (hydrogenated) mai suna a ƙarshen ƙarshen sikelin. Haɗin margarine shine cakuda dukkanin nau'ikan abubuwan haɗin. Gabaɗaya, jiragen ruwa masu ƙarfi suna ɗauke da mai mai ƙanshi.
Yawan ruwan margarine mai taushi ya ƙunshi kashi 10% zuwa 20% na kitsen mai. Kullun man shanu na yau da kullun ya ƙunshi nau'ikan mai 52 zuwa 65%.

Kitse mara dadi.
An gano amfani da sinadarin mai wanda ba shi da cikakken amfani don rage yawan matakan LDL cholesterol da kuma kara karfin HDL cholesterol a cikin jini, don haka rage barazanar kamuwa da cututtukan zuciya da jijiyoyin jini.
Akwai nau'ikan mai guda biyu da ba a wadatuwa ba: guda daya da poly wadanda ba a wadatuwa da su duka ana sanin su da amfani ga lafiya sabanin mai mai mai. Wasu man shuke-shuken da suka yadu, irin su fyaɗe (da ire-iren canola), sunflower, safflower, da man zaitun suna ɗauke da ƙwayoyin mai da yawa. Yayin kera sinadarin margarine, wasu daga cikin kitsen da basu cika ba zasu iya canzawa zuwa mai mai hydrogen ko kuma su canza shi domin basu wuri mai narkewa domin su zama masu karfin gaske a yanayin yanayin daki.
Omega-3 fatty acid dangi ne na polyunsaturated fatty acid, wanda aka gano musamman mai kyau ga lafiya. Wannan shine ɗayan abubuwa biyu masu mahimmanci, wanda ake kira saboda mutane basa iya ƙera shi kuma dole ne su samo shi daga abinci. Omega-3 acid mai yawanci ana samunsa ne mafi yawa daga kifin mai mai kamawa a cikin ruwa mai girman latitude. Ba a san su da yawa ba a cikin tushen kayan lambu, gami da margarine.
Koyaya, ana iya samun nau'ikan Omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA) a cikin wasu man kayan lambu. Man Flax ya ƙunshi -to-% na ALA, kuma yana zama sanannen ƙarin kayan abinci ga mai kifin kishiya; dukansu ana sanya su a cikin manyan jiragen ruwa na ruwa. Wani tsohon shuka mai, camelina sativa, ya sami karbuwa kwanan nan saboda yawan Omega-3 (- to-%), kuma an kara shi zuwa wasu margarines. Man Hemp ya ƙunshi kusan -% ALA. Ana samun amountsananan ALA a cikin mai na kayan lambu kamar su waken soya (-%), man da aka yi wa fyaɗe (-%) da man ƙwaya na alkama (-%).
Omega-6 mai mai.
Omega-6 fatty acid shima yana da mahimmanci ga lafiya. Sun haɗa da mahimmin acid linoleic acid (LA), wanda yake da yalwa a cikin mayukan kayan lambu da aka girma a cikin yanayi mai yanayi. Wasu, kamar su hemp (-%) da masarar margarine gama gari (-%), auduga (-%) da sunflower (-%), suna da adadi mai yawa, amma yawancin mai mai zafin jiki sun wuce -% LA. Margarine yana da matukar yawa a cikin kitse mai mai omega-6. Abincin Yammacin zamani yana da yawa sosai a cikin Omega-6 amma yana da ƙarancin Omega-3. Omega-6 zuwa omega-rabo yawanci - to -. Omega-6 mai yawa yana rage tasirin omega-3. Saboda haka ana ba da shawarar cewa rabo a cikin abincin ya zama ƙasa da 4: 1, kodayake rabo mafi kyau na iya zama kusa da 1: 1.

Tran mai.
Ba kamar sauran kitsen abincin ba, fat fatty acid ba shi da mahimmanci kuma ba su da wata fa'ida sananne ga lafiyar ɗan adam. Akwai kyakkyawan yanayin layi tsakanin cin abinci mai ƙoshin mai da ƙwayar LDL cholesterol, sabili da haka ya ƙara haɗarin kamuwa da cututtukan zuciya, ta hanyar haɓaka matakan LDL cholesterol da ƙananan matakan HDL cholesterol.
Yawancin karatu da yawa sun nuna hanyar haɗi tsakanin amfani da mai mai yawa da cututtukan zuciya, da kuma yiwuwar wasu cututtukan, ya sa da yawa daga hukumomin kiwon lafiya na gwamnati a duk faɗin duniya suka bayar da shawarar cewa a rage rage yawan ƙwayoyin mai.
A Amurka, rarraba hydrogenation ya zama gama gari sakamakon fifiko ga man da ake samarwa a cikin gida. Koyaya, tun daga tsakiyar shekarun 1990, ƙasashe da yawa a duniya sun fara ƙauracewa amfani da mai mai ƙoshin iska. Wannan ya haifar da samar da sabbin nau'ikan margarine wadanda ke dauke da mai ko kuma babu.
Cholesterol.
Yawan kwalastaral haɗari ne ga lafiyar jiki saboda ɗimbin ɗimbin ɗakuna suna rufe jijiyoyin a hankali. Wannan zai haifar da kwararar jini zuwa kwakwalwa, zuciya, kodoji da sauran sassan jiki su zama marasa inganci. Cholesterol, kodayake ana buƙata ta hanyar motsa jiki, ba mahimmanci a cikin abinci ba. Jikin mutum yana yin cholesterol a cikin hanta, yana daidaita samarwar gwargwadon abincinsa, yana samar da kusan 1g na cholesterol kowace rana ko 80% na duka cholesterol na jiki da ake buƙata. Sauran 20% ya zo kai tsaye daga cin abinci.
Saboda haka yawan cin cholesterol a matsayin abinci bashi da tasiri sosai a matakan cholesterol na jini sama da nau'in kitse da ake ci. Koyaya, wasu mutane sun fi dacewa da cholesterol na abinci fiye da wasu. Hukumar Abinci da Magunguna ta Amurka ta ce mutane masu lafiya kada su sha fiye da 300 na cholesterol kowace rana.
Yawancin margarines suna tushen kayan lambu ne kuma saboda haka basu ƙunshi cholesterol. 100 grams na man shanu ya ƙunshi 178 MG na cholesterol.
Shuka estrol esters da stanol esters
An saka tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire na tsire-tsire ko tsire-tsire stanol esters a cikin wasu margarines kuma suna yaɗuwa saboda tasirin tasirin cholesterol. Yawancin karatu sun nuna cewa yawan amfani da kimanin gram 2 a kowace rana yana ba da ragin LDL cholesterol na kusan 10%.
Karbar kasuwa
Margarine, musamman margarine mai cike da ruwa, ya zama babban ɓangare na abincin Yammacin Turai kuma ya mamaye man shanu a shahara a tsakiyar karni na 20 A Amurka, misali, a cikin 1930, matsakaicin mutum ya ci sama da fam 18 (kilogiram 8.2) na man shanu a shekara kuma kusan fam 2 (kilogiram 0.91) na margarine. A ƙarshen karni na 20, Ba'amurke mai matsakaici ya ci kusan 5 lb (2.3 kg) na man shanu da kusan lb 8 (3.6 kilogiram) na margarine.
Margarine tana da darajar kasuwar musamman ga waɗanda ke kiyaye dokokin cin abincin yahudawa na Kashrut. Kashrut ya hana hada nama da kayan kiwo; saboda haka akwai wadatattun jiragen ruwa na Kosher wadanda ba na kiwo ba. Wadannan masu amfani da Kosher galibi suna amfani dasu don daidaita girke-girke waɗanda suke amfani da nama da man shanu ko a cikin kayan da aka gasa waɗanda za a yi amfani da su tare da abincin nama. Shortagearancin margarine na Idin Passoveretarewa na 2008 a Amurka ya haifar da damuwa a tsakanin jama'ar Kosher-mai lura.
Margarine wanda baya dauke da kayan kiwo shima zai iya samarda wani madadin cin nama ga man shanu.
Man kayan lambu na hydrogenated da aka yi amfani da shi cikin margarine mai laushi.
Man kayan lambu na hydrogen yana hana margarine narkewa da rabuwa a zafin dakin.
Yawancin margarine ana yin sa ne ta hanyar yin emulsion na madara mai ƙyama da man kayan lambu. Abincin margarine na farko an yi shi ne da mafi yawan naman sa. Ni, na ɗaya, ina farin ciki da suka canza girke-girke. Kuna iya samun ƙarin bayani a:
Ana yin margarine da mai na kayan lambu wanda ake samu daga ƙwayoyin shuke-shuke da madarar madara. Wadannan man na kayan lambu sun hada da masara, da auduga, waken soya, da kuma tsaba. Don yin margarine daga man kayan lambu, fara da cire mai daga tsaba kamar: masara, canola ko safflower. Ana amfani da mai don lalata antioxidants da bitamin.
Don yin margarine daga man kayan lambu, fara da cire mai daga tsaba kamar: masara, canola ko safflower. Ana amfani da mai don lalata antioxidants da bitamin. Na gaba, an gauraya mai da wani abu mai guba mai tsananin gaske wanda ake kira nickel, wanda ke aiki azaman mai haɓaka. Hakanan zaku sanya mai a cikin reactor, a ƙarƙashin yanayin zafi mai ƙarfi da matsin lamba ta hanyar aikin da aka sani da hydrogenation na emulsification. Ana saka emulsifiers a cikin man don cire kumburin kuma an sake hura man. Ana yin bilki don samun launin toka kuma ana ƙara bitamin na roba da launuka na roba.
Ana sanya mai mai kayan lambu ko dai a matse mai sanyi kamar su zaitun da ridi, kuma suma suna da kyau. Tataccen mai ya haɗa da safflower ko canola.
Akwai mai iri-iri da ake amfani da su wajen shirya abinci da girke-girke. An rarraba kayan mai na kayan lambu dangane da asalin su, da yanayin zafin girki.
Don ƙarin bayani game da dabara ko yadda za'a iya tuntuɓar lambobin Margarine / Butter tare da asusun kamfaninmu.


Post lokaci: Mayu-17-2021